Invitation to Philosophy: Issues and Options
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First ponder the concepts, then discover how experts debate it. INVITATION TO PHILOSOPHY: ISSUES AND OPTIONS walks you through each major topic in philosophy using language you can understand, shows you how it's all connected, and manages to be entertaining at the same time.
people acquiesce in a life of passive pleasures with a minimum of discomforts. Skinner suggests in Walden Two that the majority of people want merely some assurance that they will be decently provided for. The rest is a day-to-day enjoyment of life. 3. Human Nature Is Empty, Plastic, Reactive Turning now to a third alternative, that human beings are born with no given, definable nature at all and are therefore infinitely malleable, we find that its supporters include such incompatible fellow
realism, 60 definition, 54, 252* epistemological dualism, 55-56 phenomenalism, 58, 89, 110-112, 252' solipsism, 57, 255* subjective idealism, 56-57, 103, 255* theories of, 55-56 truth and, 54-66, 66 Percy, Walker, 17 Pessimism, 86-87 Phenomenalism, 58, 88, 110-112, 252* Phenomenology, 92, 252* Phenomenon, 58, 88, 252* Philo, 145 Philosophical attitude, 4-6 Philosophical thinking, 31-68 argument, 34, 244* conclusion, 34, 245* deduction, 40-46, 78, 246* dialogue, 5, 246* fallacies,
and Truth Suggested Readings Austin, J. L. Sense and Sensibilia. New York: Oxford University Press (Galaxy Books), 1964. Ayer, A. J. Language, Truth, and Logic. New York: Dover, 1952. Berkeley, George. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. Edited by Robert M. Adams. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1979. Bradley, Francis Herbert. "On Truth and Coherence." In Essays on Truth and Reality. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914. Fish, Stanley. 7s There a Text in This Class? Cambridge, MA: Harvard
are skeptical of metaphysical thinking is, indeed, a serious understatement; they reject it as a morass of confusion. For a representation of the linguistic analysts' antimetaphysical posture, let us examine some of the arguments put forward in 1936 by A. J. Ayer in Language, Truth, and Logic. The first chapter of Ayer's book is entitled "The Elimination of Metaphysics." Ayer's thesis is that philosophizing, properly understood, is solely an activity concerned with the analysis and clarification
pattern of meaning that has emerged and exclaims: "Lovely!" Is the case different when the outcome of effort and subsequent appreciation is a loaf of bread, a stack of firewood ready for winter, or the purr of a finely tuned engine? Handcrafted objects, concrete expressions of the seemingly boundless human imagination, hold a unique fascination for esthetic experience. Nature, in turn, offers galaxies and glaciers, seashells and pounding surf, orchids and flamingoes, cataracts and mountain